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Prostate Cancer - phytoestrogens


General and specific diseases

1: Int J Oncol 2000 Jun;16(6):1091-7

Inhibition of prostate specific antigen expression by genistein in prostate cancer cells.

Davis JN, Muqim N, Bhuiyan M, Kucuk O, Pienta KJ, Sarkar FH.

Department of Cancer Biology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

Recent studies have provided convincing evidence for the role of soy-isoflavones, particularly genistein, in the inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a biological marker used to detect and monitor the treatment of prostate cancer patients. Previous studies have documented that isoflavones can inhibit the secretion of PSA in the androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP, however, the effects of genistein on androgen-independent PSA expression has not been explored. In this study, we have utilized a prostate cancer cell line, VeCaP, which expresses PSA in an androgen-independent manner, to determine the effects of genistein on cell proliferation and PSA expression. Here we show that genistein inhibits cell growth similarly in both the LNCaP and VeCaP cell lines, but has differential effects on PSA expression. We demonstrate using concentrations of genistein that have been detected in the serum of humans consuming a soy-rich diet, that genistein decreases PSA mRNA, protein expression and secretion. Conversely, only high concentrations of genistein inhibited PSA expression in VeCaP cells. Additionally, we have demonstrated that genistein inhibits cell proliferation independent of PSA signaling pathways, providing further evidence to support the role of genistein as a chemopreventive/therapeutic agent for prostate cancer irrespective of androgen responsiveness.

PMID: 10811979 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1: Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2000 Aug;9(8):1829-40

The therapeutic potential of phytoestrogens.

Wiseman H.

Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, King's College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 8WA, UK. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Phytoestrogens, such as the soya isoflavones genistein and daidzein, are currently being extensively investigated through both molecular, preclinical and clinical studies to determine their potential health benefits. Phytoestrogens may protect against chronic diseases such as hormone-dependent cancer (e.g., breast and prostate cancer), cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Investigations of phytoestrogen metabolism and bioavailability are also of great relevance. Conversion by gut microflora of daizein to its isoflavan metabolite equol, which is a more potent oestrogen and anti-oxidant, occurs only in some individuals (about 35% of subjects tested are equol excretors). This has considerable implications for daidzein bioavailability and also for cancer risk. Oxidative damage has been implicated in the development of heart disease and cancer and soya phytoestrogens have been reported to decrease plasma F(2)-isoprostane concentrations (biomarker for in vivo lipid peroxidation) and increase low density lipoprotein oxidation resistance. This anti-oxidant action of phytoestrogens could potentially contribute to their therapeutic efficacy. The findings from the current ongoing studies are all likely to contribute to determining the potential use of phytoestrogens as therapeutic agents.

Publication Types: Review Review, tutorial

PMID: 11060780 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1: Mol Carcinog 2000 Oct;29(2):92-102

Low-dose genistein induces cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and G(1) cell-cycle arrest in human prostate cancer cells.

Shen JC, Klein RD, Wei Q, Guan Y, Contois JH, Wang TT, Chang S, Hursting SD.

Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Genistein, a naturally occurring isoflavone found chiefly in soy products, reportedly has antiprostate cancer effects, but the mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. We studied the antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of genistein in the androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Viable cell number was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay; cell-cycle progression and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry; apoptosis was also assessed by a histone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; and the expression of several cell-cycle- and apoptosis-related genes and their gene products was determined by northern blot analysis, western blot analysis, and/or assays based on polymerase chain reaction. Physiologic concentrations of genistein (< or = 20 microM) decreased LNCaP viable cell number in a dose-dependent manner, induced a G(1) cell-cycle block, decreased prostate-specific antigen mRNA expression, and increased p27(KIP1) and p21(WAF1) (mRNA and protein) but had no effect on apoptosis or the mRNA expression of the apoptosis- and cell-cycle-related markers bcl-2, bax, Rb, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Higher concentrations of genistein (> 20 microM) did induce apoptosis. We conclude that genistein (at physiologic concentrations) exerts potent antiproliferative effects on LNCaP cells by inducing a G(1) cell-cycle block. The antiproliferative effects of genistein may be mediated by increased levels of p27(KIP1) and p21(WAF1), which are negative cell-cycle regulators that act as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and that have been recently linked with prostate carcinogenesis. These findings may provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the apparent antiprostate cancer effects of soy consumption observed in epidemiologic studies.

PMID: 11074606 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1: Mol Cell Endocrinol 2001 Jan 22;171(1-2):151-62

Phytoestrogens inhibit human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5.

Krazeisen A, Breitling R, Moller G, Adamski J.

GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute for Experimental Genetics, Genome Analysis Center, Ingolstadter Landstrasse 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany.

The 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 (17beta-HSD 5) is involved in estrogen and androgen metabolism. In our study we tested the influence of environmental hormones, such as phytoestrogens (flavonoids, coumarins, coumestans), on reductive and oxidative 17beta-HSD activity of the human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 (17beta-HSD 5). These dietary substances were shown to be potent inhibitors of aromatase, different 17beta-HSDs and seem to play an important role in delay of development of hormone dependent cancers. Our studies show that reductive and oxidative activity of the enzyme are inhibited by many dietary compounds, especially zearalenone, coumestrol, quercetin and biochanin A. Among the group of flavones inhibitor potency is growing with increasing number of hydroxylations. We suggest that these substances are bound to the hydrophilic cofactor-binding pocket of the enzyme. An interesting inhibition pattern is observed for 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid, which has no influence on the oxidative but only on the reductive reaction. This indicates that this substrate binds to pH- and cofactor-depending sites at the active center of the enzyme.

PMID: 11165023 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1: Prostate 2001 Feb 1;46(2):98-107

Detrimental effect of cancer preventive phytochemicals silymarin, genistein and epigallocatechin 3-gallate on epigenetic events in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells.

Bhatia N, Agarwal R.

Center for Cancer Causation and Prevention, AMC Cancer Research Center, 1600 Pierce Street, Denver, CO 80214, USA.

BACKGROUND: Targeting epigenetic events associated with autonomous growth of advanced prostate cancer (PCA) is a practical approach for its control, prevention, and treatment. Recently we showed that treatment of prostate carcinoma DU145 cells with cancer preventive flavonoid silymarin at 100-200 microM doses inhibits erbB1-Shc mitogenic signaling and modulates cell cycle regulators leading to a G1 arrest and inhibition of cell growth and anchorage-independent colony formation. Here, we asked the question whether these important findings could be extended to other cancer preventive flavonoids and isoflavones such as epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) and genistein. METHODS: DU145 cells were treated with similar doses (100-200 microM) of silymarin, genistein or EGCG, cell lysates prepared, and levels of activated signaling molecules (erbB1-Shc-ERK1/2) and cell cycle regulators (CDKIs, CDKs, and cyclins) analyzed employing immunoprecipitation and/or immunoblotting techniques. Cell growth studies were done by cell counting during 5 days of treatment with these agents, and cell death was determined by Trypan blue staining. RESULTS: Treatment of cells with silymarin, genistein or EGCG at 100-200 microM resulted in a complete inhibition of TGFalpha-caused activation of erbB1 followed by a moderate to strong inhibition (10-90%) of Shc activation without an alteration in their protein levels. Silymarin and genistein, but not EGCG, also inhibited (10% to complete) ERK1/2 activation suggesting that these agents impair erbB1-Shc-ERK1/2 signaling in DU145 cells. In other studies, silymarin, genistein or EGCG caused a strong induction of Cip1/p21 (up to 2.4-fold) and Kip1/p27 (up to 150-fold), and a strong decrease in CDK4 (40-90%) but had moderate effect on CDK2, and cyclins D1 and E. An enhanced level of CDKIs also led to an increase in their binding to CDK4 and CDK2. Treatment of cells with silymarin, genistein or EGCG also resulted in 50-80% cell growth inhibition at lower doses, and complete inhibition at higher doses. In contrast to silymarin, higher doses of genistein showed cytotoxic effect causing 30-40% cell death. A more profound cytotoxic effect was observed with EGCG accounting for 50% cell death at lower doses and complete loss of viability at higher doses. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that similar to silymarin, genistein and EGCG also inhibit mitogenic signaling pathway(s) and alter cell cycle regulators, albeit at different levels, leading to growth inhibition and death of advanced and androgen-independent prostate carcinoma cells. More studies are, therefore, needed with these agents to explore their anti-carcinogenic potential against human prostate cancer. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 11170137 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1: Clin Cancer Res 2001 Feb;7(2):382-90

Genistein potentiates the radiation effect on prostate carcinoma cells.

Hillman GG, Forman JD, Kucuk O, Yudelev M, Maughan RL, Rubio J, Layer A, Tekyi-Mensah S, Abrams J, Sarkar FH.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, and Harper Hospital, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

We have shown previously that genistein, the major isoflavone in soybean, inhibited the growth of human prostate cancer cells in vitro by affecting the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis. To augment the effect of radiation for prostate carcinoma, we have now tested the combination of genistein with photon and neutron radiation on prostate carcinoma cells in vitro. The effects of photon or neutron radiation alone or genistein alone or both combined were evaluated on DNA synthesis, cell growth, and cell ability to form colonies. We found that neutrons were more effective than photons for the killing of prostate carcinoma cells in vitro, resulting in a relative biological effectiveness of 2.6 when compared with photons. Genistein at 15 microM caused a significant inhibition in DNA synthesis, cell growth, and colony formation in the range of 40-60% and potentiated the effect of low doses of 200-300 cGy photon or 100-150 cGy neutron radiation. The effect of the combined treatment was more pronounced than with genistein or radiation alone. Our data indicate that genistein combined with radiation inhibits DNA synthesis, resulting in inhibition of cell division and growth. Genistein can augment the effect of neutrons at doses approximately 2-fold lower than photon doses required to observe the same efficacy. These studies suggest a potential of combining genistein with radiation for the treatment of localized prostate carcinoma.

PMID: 11234894 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1: Presse Med 2001 Mar 24;30(11):561-4

[Cancer of the prostate: influence of nutritional factors. A new nutritional approach].

[Article in French]

de la Taille A, Katz A, Vacherot F, Saint F, Salomon L, Cicco A, Abbou CC, Chopin DK.

Centre de Recherche chirurgicale, Service d'Urologie, Hopital Henri Mondor, 54, boulevard du Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, F94100 Creteil. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

FIBERS: A group of vegetarian subjects have been shown to have a lower risk of cancer of the prostate than a control group. But the exact role of food fiber remains to be determined because plant foods also have an antioxidant effect on their own. PLANT PRODUCTS AND EXTRACTS: A compound called PD SPEC has been showed to have antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo. Evaluated in patients with a cancer escaping hormone control, the clinical response was a lower level of prostate specific antigen (PSA). SOYBEANS: Several studies have demonstrated the interesting properties of soybeans. No study has however been able to demonstrate the optimal dose per day. A prospective study is currently under way using a 40 g/day dose. OVERALL NUTRITIONAL APPROACH: Several studies are being conducted using a proposed diet where 15% of the total energy intake comes from fat (associated with a low saturated/unsaturated ratio), high fiber content (18 g/100 kcal) and 40 g daily soybean protein. Although large-scale studies with rigorous methodology are lacking, an overall nutritional approach could be an interesting strategy for the management of cancer of the prostate.

Publication Types: Review Review, tutorial

PMID: 11317937 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1: Free Radic Biol Med 2001 Jun 1;30(11):1293-302

Soy isoflavone supplementation in healthy men prevents NF-kappaB activation by TNF-alpha in blood lymphocytes.

Davis JN, Kucuk O, Djuric Z, Sarkar FH.

Department of Cancer Biology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA

Dietary intake of soy has been associated with a decreased risk of cancer. Soy isoflavones have been postulated to be the protective compounds in soybeans; however, the precise mechanism by which soy isoflavones prevent human cancer is not known. The major soy isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, are antioxidant compounds, therefore one possible mechanism of action is through their antioxidant effect. We have previously demonstrated that the soy isoflavone, genistein, inhibits the activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor, NF-kappaB, in prostate cancer cells in vitro. In this study, we have demonstrated that genistein, but not daidzein, inhibits TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation in cultured human lymphocytes. Additionally, we investigated the in vivo effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on NF-kappaB activation induced by TNF-alpha in vitro in peripheral blood lymphocytes of six healthy men. We show that healthy male subjects receiving 50 mg isoflavone mixture (Novasoy) twice daily for 3 weeks are protected from TNF-alpha induced NF-kappaB activation. Additionally, we observed a reduction of 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (5-OHmdU), a marker for oxidative DNA damage, following isoflavone supplementation. The inhibitory effect of soy isoflavones was no longer present 3 months after the supplementation. This preliminary study demonstrates that soy isoflavone supplementation may protect cells from oxidative stress-inducing agents by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation and decreasing DNA adduct levels.

PMID: 11368927 [PubMed - in process]

1: Biol Cell 2000;92(8-9):595-604

The mediating role of caspase-3 protease in the intracellular mechanism of genistein-induced apoptosis in human prostatic carcinoma cell lines, DU145 and LNCaP.

Kumi-Diaka J, Sanderson NA, Hall A.

Department of Biology, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, Davie 33314, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

A series of in vitro studies were carried out to investigate genistein-induced cell death, and the nature of cell death, in two human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP and Du145), and the possible involvement of caspase-3 protease in genistein-induced apoptosis in the target cells. The major findings of these studies are: i) genistein inhibits growth and proliferation of both LNCaP and DU145 cells via apoptosis mainly, and necrosis at higher concentrations; ii) genistein induces activation and expression of caspase-3 (CPP32) in both target cells; iii) genistein-induced apoptosis and CPP32 activation could be significantly inhibited by the caspase-3 inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk (N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Asp-fluoromethyl-ketone), thus confirming a mediator role of CPP32 in the genistein-induced apoptotic pathway in the target cells. The potency of most known chemopreventive drugs for cancer is due to induction of apoptosis in solid tumors (Thompson, Science 267 (1995) 1456; Gurney et al., Science 288 (2000) 283). Inevitably, agents that increase transcription of caspase-3 protease could reinforce cell death via CPP32-mediated apoptosis. In this regard, genistein may find an application in the treatment of human prostate carcinoma, independently of hormone sensitivity.

PMID: 11374438 [PubMed - in process]

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