1: Mo Med 1996 Mar;93(3):136-8
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, infantile autism, and elevated blood-lead: a possible relationship
Eppright TD, Sanfacon JA, Horwitz EA
Deparment of Psychiatry and Neurology, University of Missouri-Columbia, 65212
This case involves a 4 1/2-year-old boy diagnosed with autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and an elevated blood-lead level of 42 mcg/dl. The child was treated for the elevated blood-lead with the chelating agent succimer. The parents reported a decrease in repetitive behaviors while on succimer with a regression to previous symptoms when medication was discontinued. Also seen was a decrease of hyperactive behavior while being treated with succimer. This article explores the interaction and possible casual relationship of an elevated blood-lead, autism, and ADHD as well as treatment of the behavioral symptoms.
PMID: 8867271, UI: 97020911
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Free University Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
The alpha-oxidation of phytanic acid and the beta-oxidation of pristanitc acid were investigated in cultured fibroblasts from controls and patients affected with different peroxisomal disorders using deuterated substrates. Formation of [omega-2H6]4,8-dimethylnonanoylcarnitine ([omega-2H6]C11-carnitine) from [omega-2H6]phytanic acid and [omega-2H6]pristanic acid was used as marker for these processes. Analysis was performed by tandem mass spectrometry. In normal cells, formation of [omega-2H6]C11-carnitine from both [omega-2H6]phytanic acid and [omega-2H6]pristanic acid was observed. When peroxisome-deficient fibroblasts were incubated with these substrates, [omega-2H6]C11-carnitine was not detectable or, in two cases, very low, which results from deficiencies in both peroxisomal alpha- and beta-oxidation. In cells with an isolated beta-oxidation defect at the level of the peroxisomal bifunctional protein, formation of [omega-2H6]C11-carnitine could also not be detected. Cells with an isolated defect in the alpha-oxidation of phytanic acid, obtained from patients affected with Refsum disease (McKusick 266500) or rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (McKusick 215100), did not form [omega-2H6]C11-carnitine from [omega-2H6]phytanic acid. The observed formation of [omega-2H6]C11-carnitine from [omega-2H6]pristanic acid in these cells is in accordance with a normal peroxisomal beta-oxidation in these disorders. This study shows that separate incubation of fibroblasts with [omega-2H6]phytanic acid and [omega-2H6]pristanic acid, followed by acylcarnitine analysis in the medium by tandem mass spectrometry, can be used for screening cell lines for deficiencies in the peroxisomal alpha- and beta-oxidation pathways. Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) and pristanic acid (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecanoic acid) are branched-chain fatty acids that are constituents of the human diet. As phytanic acid possesses a beta-methyl group, it cannot be degraded by beta-oxidation. Instead, phytanic acid is first degraded by alpha-oxidation, yielding pristanic acid, which is subsequently degraded by beta-oxidation (Figure 1). Phytanic acid alpha-oxidation is thought to occur partly, and pristanic acid beta-oxidation exclusively, in peroxisomes (see Wanders et al 1995 for review). Accumulation of phytanic acid and pristanic acid is found in blood and tissues of patients affected with generalized peroxisomal disorders. In this type of disorder, no morphologically distinguishable peroxisomes are present in tissues, resulting in accumulation of metabolites that are normally metabolized in these organelles (see Wanders et al 1995 for review). The group of generalized peroxisomal disorders consists of three diseases, differing in clinical presentation. Patients suffering from the most severe disease, Zellweger syndrome (McKusick 214100), have symptoms from birth on and usually do not live beyond their first year of life. Neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (N-ALD, McKusick 202370) has a milder presentation, whereas infantile Refsum disease (IRD, McKusick 266510) is the mildest form among the generalized peroxisomal disorders. Not only in these generalized peroxisomal disorders, but also in some isolated peroxisomal beta-oxidation defects, elevated levels of phytanic acid and pristanic acid are found (ten Brink et al 1992a). The elevated phytanic acid levels are considered to be caused by product inhibition of alpha-oxidation by accumulating pristanic acid. This is reflected in a highly elevated pristanic acid to phytanic acid ratio in plasma from patients suffering from bifunctional protein deficiency or peroxisomal thiolase deficiency (ten Brink et al 1992a). Elevated phytanic acid concentrations are also found in plasma from patients affected with classical Refsum disease and rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP). As pristanic acid beta-oxidation is not disturbed in these disorders, pristanic acid levels are normal (ten Brink et al 1992
PMID: 9819705, UI: 99037140
Moser AB, Kreiter N, Bezman L, Lu S, Raymond GV, Naidu S, Moser HW.
Plasma very long chain fatty acids in 3,000 peroxisome disease patients and 29,000 controls. Ann Neurol 1999; 45:1000-1010.
Department of Neurology, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
The assay of plasma very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), developed in our laboratory in 1981, has become the most widely used procedure for the diagnosis of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) and other peroxisomal disorders. We present here our 17 years' experience with this assay. Three VLCFA parameters, the level of hexacosanoic acid (C26:0), the ratio of C26:0 to tetracosanoic acid (C24:0), and of C26:0 to docosanoic acid (C22:0), were measured in 1,097 males (hemizygotes) with X-ALD, 1,282 women heterozygous for this disorder, including 379 obligate heterozygotes, 797 patients with other peroxisomal disorders, and 29,600 control subjects. All X-ALD hemizygotes who had not previously received Lorenzo's oil or a diet with a high erucic acid content had increased VLCFA levels, but the application of a discriminant function based on all three measurements is required to avoid the serious consequences of a false-negative result. VLCFA levels are increased at day of birth, thus providing the potential for neonatal mass screening, are identical in the childhood and adult forms, and do not change with age. Eighty-five percent of obligate heterozygotes had abnormally high VLCFA levels, but a normal result does not exclude carrier status. VLCFA levels were increased in all patients homozygous for Zellweger syndrome, neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, infantile Refsum's disease, and in patients with deficiencies of peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase, bifunctional enzyme, and 3-oxoacyl-coenzyme A thiolase. In these patients the degree of VLCFA excess correlated with clinical severity.
PMID: 9894883, UI: 99110174
1: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999 Sep;67(3):279-80
Treatment of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy with Lorenzo's oil.
Publication Types: Editorial
PMID: 10449544, UI: 99380417
1: J Inherit Metab Dis 2000 Mar;23(2):113-9
Enhanced lymphocyte proliferation in patients with adrenoleukodystrophy treated with erucic acid (22:1)-rich triglycerides.
Pour RB, Stockler-Ipsiroglu S, Hunneman DH, Gahr M, Korenke GC, Pabst W, Hanefeld F, Peters A
Department of Neuropediatrics, Children's Hospital University of Gottingen, Germany.
Lymphocytopenia and depression of natural killer cells have been observed in patients with adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) treated with glycerol trioleate and glycerol trierucate ('Lorenzo's oil'). To investigate possible alterations of cellular immunoreactivity, we measured lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogens (PHA, Con A, PWM, OKT3) in 27 patients on treatment and in 14 patients without treatment. In patients on treatment, lymphocyte proliferation in response to the mitogens PHA and Con A was significantly higher than in patients without treatment. Lymphocyte proliferation in patients without treatment was comparable to that of normal control lymphocytes. Additionally, we found increased concentrations of erucic acid, C22:1, in lymphocytes from patients with treatment. The enhanced proliferation of lymphocytes in response to mitogens is an indication of increased reactivity of cellular immunity to unspecific immunological stimuli. Long-term side-effects on cellular immunoreactivity have to be considered in ALD patients treated with Lorenzo's oil.
Publication Types: Clinical trial
PMID: 10801052, UI: 20258990
1: Am J Kidney Dis 1999 Sep;34(3):438-44
Comparison of hemostatic factors and serum malondialdehyde as predictive factors for cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients.
Boaz M, Matas Z, Biro A, Katzir Z, Green M, Fainaru M, Smetana S
Department of Internal Medicine A, E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel.
Hemodialysis (HD) patients have accelerated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates compared with the general population. Identifying the factors that predict major coronary events in this population can direct the focus on prevention. This cross-sectional study compares known and suspected cardiovascular risk factors in HD patients with and without prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD). In 76 HD patients (prevalent CVD, 44 of 76 patients), serum lipid, lipoprotein, apolipoprotein (Apo), plasma fibrinogen, tissue plasminogen activator (TPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), and factor VII levels were measured using standard kits. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA; a marker of oxidative stress) was measured using spectrophotometry. Predictor variables were compared using analysis of variance and chi-squared tests, as appropriate. CVD prevalence was modeled using multiple logistic regression analysis, and odds ratios (OR) were calculated. Serum lipid, lipoprotein, Apo, plasma TPA, PAI-1, and factor VII values did not differ significantly from laboratory norms or discriminate for prevalent CVD in HD patients. Plasma fibrinogen levels were significantly elevated in HD patients compared with laboratory norms (369.4 +/- 130.02 v 276.7 +/- 77.7 mg/dL; P < 0.0001) but were not significantly different in HD patients with and without prevalent CVD. Serum MDA levels, both before and after the midweek HD treatment, were significantly elevated in all HD patients compared with laboratory norms (pretreatment, 2.6 +/- 0.8 nmol/mL; posttreatment, 2.1 +/- 0.3 v 0.91 +/- 0.09 nmol/mL; P < 0.01) and were significantly elevated in HD patients with prevalent CVD versus those without (pretreatment, 2.8 +/- 0.6 v 2.4 +/- 0.4 nmol/mL; P < 0.01; posttreatment, 2.3 +/- 0.4 v 1.94 +/- 0.2 nmol/mL; P < 0.01). Only serum MDA levels, both before and after the midweek treatment, contributed to the explanation of variation in CVD prevalence. OR for CVD in the highest versus lowest tertile of pretreatment MDA level was 2.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42 to 5.19). ORs for CVD in the highest versus lowest tertile of posttreatment MDA level was 3.65 (95% CI, 1.6 to 8.32).
PMID: 10469853, UI: 99400354
1: Lancet 2000 Oct 7;356(9237):1213-8
Secondary prevention with antioxidants of cardiovascular disease in endstage renal disease (SPACE): randomised placebo-controlled trial.
Boaz M, Smetana S, Weinstein T, Matas Z, Gafter U, Iaina A, Knecht A, Weissgarten Y, Brunner D, Fainaru M, Green MS
[Medline record in process]
BACKGROUND: Excess cardiovascular mortality has been documented in chronic haemodialysis patients. Oxidative stress is greater in haemodialysis patients with prevalent cardiovascular disease than in those without, suggesting a role for oxidative stress in excess cardiovascular disease in haemodialysis. We investigated the effect of high-dose vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular disease outcomes in haemodialysis patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease.
METHODS: Haemodialysis patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (n=196) aged 40-75 years at baseline from six dialysis centres were enrolled and randomised to receive 800 IU/day vitamin E or matching placebo. Patients were followed for a median 519 days. The primary endpoint was a composite variable consisting of: myocardial infarction (fatal and non-fatal), ischaemic stroke, peripheral vascular disease (excluding the arteriovenous fistula), and unstable angina. Secondary outcomes included each of the component outcomes, total mortality, and cardiovascular-disease mortality.
FINDINGS: A total of 15 (16%) of the 97 patients assigned to vitamin E and 33 (33%) of the 99 patients assigned to placebo had a primary endpoint (relative risk 0.46 [95% CI 0.27-0.78], p=0.014). Five (5.1%) patients assigned to vitamin E and 17 (17.2%) patients assigned to placebo had myocardial infarction (0.3 [0.11-0.78], p=0.016). No significant differences in other secondary endpoints, cardiovascular disease, or total mortality were detected.
INTERPRETATION: In haemodialysis patients with prevalent cardiovascular disease, supplementation with 800 IU/day vitamin E reduces composite cardiovascular disease endpoints and myocardial infarction.
PMID: 11072938, UI: 20523090
1: Altern Med Rev 2000 Oct;5(5):467-71
[Medline record in process]
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the acetylated precursor of both the amino acid L-cysteine and reduced glutathione (GSH). Historically it has been used as a mucolytic agent in chronic respiratory illnesses as well as an antidote for hepatotoxicity due to acetaminophen overdose. More recently, animal and human studies of NAC have shown it to be a powerful antioxidant and a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of cancer, heart disease, HIV infection, heavy metal toxicity, and other diseases characterized by free radical oxidant damage. NAC has also been shown to be of some value in treating Sjogren's syndrome, smoking cessation, influenza, hepatitis C, and myoclonus epilepsy.
PMID: 11056417, UI: 20512259
1: J Neurol Sci 2000 Oct 1;179(1-2):115-121
Glutathione S-transferase and drug sensitivity in malignant glioma.
Winter S, Strik H, Rieger J, Beck J, Meyermann R, Weller M
Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology, Department of Neurology, University of Tubingen, School of Medicine, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076, Tubingen, Germany
[Record supplied by publisher]
Malignant gliomas are largely resistant to current approaches of adjuvant chemotherapy. Gluthatione S-transferases (GST) have been attributed a role in the resistance of cancer cells, e.g., to nitrosoureas. Here, we assessed the expression levels of GST-pi and GST-mu RNA and protein as well as total GST activity in a panel of 12 human glioma cell lines and correlated these data with p53 status, BCL-2 family protein expression and drug sensitivity in these cells. Neither GST protein levels nor GST activity correlated with genetic or functional p53 status or with the expression of various BCL-2 family proteins. No evidence for GST-mediated protection from chemotherapeutic drugs became apparent. In contrast, high levels of GST-pi protein, probably the major source of GST activity in glioma cells, and of total GST activity correlated with enhanced sensitivity to vincristine-induced clonogenic cell death. Expression of GST-pi in human glioblastomas in vivo was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Neither total, nor cytoplasmic or nuclear, GST-pi immunoreactivity correlated with the response to adjuvant radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy. A comparative analysis of primary and recurrent tumors showed that GST expression was not enhanced by radiochemotherapy in vivo. We conclude that GST does not account for the differential chemosensitivity of glioma cell lines in vitro and does not accumulate in glioma subpopulations that form recurrent tumors after radiochemotherapy in vivo.
1: Dig Dis Sci 2000 Sep;45(9):1769-73
Helicobacter pylori reduces intracellular glutathione in gastric epithelial cells.
Beil W, Obst B, Sewing KF, Wagner S
Department of General Pharmacology, Hannover Medical School, Germany
[Medline record in process]
Helicobacter pylori infection has been associated with stimulation of gastric mucosal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and it was postulated that ROS production is due to neutrophil infiltration and activation. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct effect of H. pylori on ROS formation in gastric epithelial cells in vitro. The human gastric cancer cell line HM02 was incubated with H. pylori for 24 hr, and the effects on cell number and the intracellular radical scavenger reduced glutathione (GSH) were assessed. H. pylori caused a concentration-dependent reduction of cellular GSH concentrations over a broad bacteria-to-cell ratio (1.4-42) in the absence of cell necrosis. The radical scavengers MnTBAP (a cell permeable superoxide dismutase) and ebselen provided protection against H. pylori-induced decrease in cellular GSH concentrations. We conclude that H. pylori directly decreases cellular GSH concentrations in gastric epithelial cells. We suggest that this effect is caused by the release of ROS by H. pylori.
PMID: 11052318, UI: 20505499
1: J Epidemiol 2000 Sep;10(5):349-60
Genetic polymorphism of enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and the risk of colorectal cancer.
Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
[Medline record in process]
Environmental factors such as smoking cigarette, diets and alcohol may interact with genetic factors, which put one individual at a greater or lesser risk of a particular cancer than another. Advances in molecular biology have allowed many allelic variants of several drug metabolizing enzymes so that individuals with the susceptible genotypes can be determined easily. Many pieces of research have focused on the relationship between the distribution of polymorphic variants of different forms of the metabolic enzymes and colorectal cancer susceptibility because of importance roles of the metabolic enzymes in the activation of many procarcinogens or chemicals. In this respect five groups of the metabolic enzymes, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1/CYP1A2, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), N-acetyltransferases (NATs), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), have been discussed here. A positive association between development of colorectal cancer and the mutant homozygous genotype in Mspl polymorphism of CYP1A1 gene has been reported in Japanese in Hawaii. The relation between genetic polymorphisms in GSTs and cancer risk has also taken an interest. At least nine studies have demonstrated the relation between the GST polymorphisms and colorectal cancer. Two of these studies suggested an increased risk of approximately 2-fold among those with the GSTM1 null genotype, while others found no risk increase. None of these studies examined the combined effect of CYP1A1 and GST polymorphisms. Either NAT2 or CYP1A2 alone have been slightly associated with colorectal cancer. When CYP1A2 and NAT2 phenotype were combined, a significant increased risk (odds ratio of 2.8) was seen among well done meat consumers with the rapid-rapid phenotype. Two published studies have found that the risk of colorectal cancer can be enhanced (2-3 fold) in alcohol drinkers with heterozygous genotype of ALDH2 in two Japanese populations recently. Findings from three published studies suggested that the mutant genotype of MTHFR inversely slightly associated with colorectal cancer. Although some of genetic polymorphisms discussed here have not shown statistically significant increase/decrease in risk, individuals with differing genotypes may have different susceptibilities to colorectal cancer, based on environmental factors. Further studies are needed to identify risk groups more specific and to determine factors of importance in colorectal cancer development.
PMID: 11059519, UI: 20511298
1: J Urol 2000 Dec;164(6):2126-8
PLASMA GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE pi1-1 AND alpha1-1 LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH BLADDER CANCER.
Berendsen CL, Mulder TP, Peters WH
Department of Urology, Atrium Medical Center Heerlen, Heerlen and Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital St. Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
[Medline record in process]
PURPOSE: Transitional cell carcinomas of the human bladder and many gastrointestinal tumors often contain high amounts of the detoxification enzyme glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1-1). Elevated levels of GSTP1-1 have been found in serum and plasma from patients with gastrointestinal, lung or head and neck cancer. GSTP1-1 and glutathione S-transferase alpha (GSTA1-1) have been reported to be increased in 10 of 15 patients (67%) with bladder cancer. We evaluate the role of GSTP1-1 and GSTA1-1 as plasma tumor markers in 50 patients with bladder cancer before and after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood from patients with bladder cancer was sampled in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid tubes. Plasma GSTA1-1 and GSTP1-1 were measured using the sensitive and specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Respective plasma GSTA1-1 and GSTP1-1 levels were above the upper normal reference limit in 2 (4%) and 14 (28%) of the 50 patients with bladder cancer. No significant decrease in plasma GSTA1-1 or GSTP1-1 was noted in matched pairs of plasma samples collected before and after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to earlier reports, only a limited number of patients with bladder cancer had increased plasma GSTA1-1 or GSTP1-1, which did not decrease after tumor resection. These findings argue against the use of GSTP1-1 or GSTA1-1 as plasma markers for bladder cancer.
PMID: 11061940, UI: 20515813
1: Breast Cancer Res 1999;1(1):81-87
Glutathione S-transferase M1 null genotype: lack of association with tumour characteristics and survival in advanced breast cancer.
Lizard-Nacol S, Coudert B, Colosetti P, Riedinger JM, Fargeot P, Brunet-Lecomte P
[Record supplied by publisher]
BACKGROUND: Glutathione S-transferase (GST)M1, a member of the mu class GST gene family, has been shown to be polymorphic because of a partial gene deletion. This results in a failure to express the GSTM1 gene in 50-60% of individuals. Several studies have demonstrated a possible link with the GSTM1-null genotype and susceptibility to cancer. Furthermore, a GSTM1 isoenzyme has been positively associated with protective effect against mutagenic drugs, such as alkylating agents and anthracyclines.
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether GSTM1 polymorphisms are associated with tumour characteristics and survival in advanced breast cancer patients, and whether it may constitute a prognostic factor.
METHODS: We genotyped 92 patients receiving primary chemotherapy, which included cyclophosphamide, doxorubicine and 5-fluorouracil. The relationships between allelism at GSTM1 and clinicopathological parameters including age, menopausal status, tumour size, grade hormone receptors, involved nodes and p53 gene mutations were analysed. Of the patients with GSTM1-positive genotype, tissue samples obtained before and after treatment were available from 28 cases, allowing RNA extraction and GSTM1 expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Relationships with clinical response to chemotherapy, and disease-free and overall survival were also evaluated. The data obtained was analysed using logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval.
RESULTS: Of 92 patients, 57.6% (n = 53) were classified as heritably GSTM1-deficient, and 42.4% (n = 39) were of the GSTM1-positive genotype. There were no statistically significant relationships between GSTM1-null genotype and the clinicopathological parameters analysed. No relationship was observed between GSTM1 RNA expression and objective clinical response to chemotherapy. Objective clinical response to chemotherapy was related only to clinical tumour size (P = 0.0177) and to the absence of intraductal carcinoma (P = 0.0013). GSTM1-null genotype had no effect on disease-free or overall survival. The absence of hormone receptors (P = 0.002), the presence of a mutated p53 gene (P = 0.0098) and lack of response to primary chemotherapy (P = 0.0086) were the only factors associated with reduced disease-free or overall survival.
CONCLUSIONS: GSTM1-null genotype alone had no effect on tumour characteristics and outcome of patients with advanced breast cancers. The lack of correlation of GSTM1 genotype with clinical tumour features, clinical response to chemotherapy and survival exclude a role for GSTM1 polymorphism as a prognostic factor in advanced breast cancer.
1: Int J Cancer 2000 Dec 1;88(5):702-7
Interactions between N-acetylcysteine and ascorbic acid in modulating mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.
D'Agostini F, Balansky RM, Camoirano A, De Flora S
Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.
[Medline record in process]
Both ascorbic acid (AsA, vitamin C) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a precursor and analogue of glutathione, possess a broad array of biological properties underlying their protective role in a variety of pathophysiological conditions. However, under certain circumstances, AsA behaves as a pro-oxidant rather than an anti-oxidant and produces adverse effects. This prompted us to evaluate whether NAC could interact with AsA in preventing mutation and cancer. AsA significantly increased spontaneous revertants in the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA102 and TA104, which are sensitive to oxidative mutagens. In contrast, NAC lowered the spontaneous background in TA104 and neutralized the negative effects of AsA. Moreover, NAC and AsA showed additive effects in reducing chromium(VI) and in reverting its mutagenicity. A single i.p. injection of urethane (1 g/kg body weight) to 120 A/J mice resulted, after 4 months, in the formation of a total of 1,532 lung tumors, 425 in the 30 mice treated with the carcinogen only, 404 in those treated with urethane plus AsA, 365 in those treated with urethane plus NAC and 338 in those treated with urethane plus the combination of AsA and NAC (both given daily with drinking water at the dose of 1 g/kg body weight). Compared to positive controls, tumor multiplicity was poorly affected by AsA, whereas it was significantly decreased by NAC and even more so by its combination with AsA. The overall volumes of lung tumors in the 4 groups were 107.5, 89.3, 61.3 and 49.7 mm(3), respectively. Tumor sizes were slightly but significantly decreased in mice treated with AsA and more so in those treated with NAC and NAC plus AsA, their combination being significantly more effective than each individually. All protective effects elicited by combining the 2 drugs were additive. Therefore, NAC prevents the adverse effects of AsA on spontaneous mutagenicity; at the same time, this thiol behaves in an additive fashion with AsA, inhibiting the mutagenicity of chromium(VI) and the lung tumorigenicity of urethane in mice. These findings suggest that NAC and AsA could conveniently be combined in cancer chemoprevention and other pharmacological interventions. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
PMID: 11072237, UI: 20526084
1: Biochem Pharmacol 2000 Dec 15;60(12):1915-1923
Lack of glutathione conjugation to adriamycin in human breast cancer MCF-7/DOX cells. Inhibition of glutathione s-transferase p1-1 by glutathione conjugates from anthracyclines.
Gaudiano G, Koch TH, Lo Bello M, Nuccetelli M, Ravagnan G, Serafino A, Sinibaldi-Vallebona P
Institute of Experimental Medicine, National Research Council, 00133, Rome, Italy
[Record supplied by publisher]
One of the proposed mechanisms for multidrug resistance relies on the ability of resistant tumor cells to efficiently promote glutathione S-transferase (GST)-catalyzed GSH conjugation of the antitumor drug. This type of conjugation, observed in several families of drugs, has never been documented satisfactorily for anthracyclines. Adriamycin-resistant human breast cancer MCF-7/DOX cells, presenting a comparable GSH concentration, but a 14-fold increase of the GST P1-1 activity relative to the sensitive MCF-7 cells, have been treated with adriamycin in the presence of verapamil, an inhibitor of the 170 P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug transport protein, and scrutinized for any production of GSH-adriamycin conjugates. HPLC analysis of cell content and culture broths have shown unequivocally that no GSH conjugates are present either inside the cell or in the culture broth. The only anthracycline present inside the cells after 24 hr of incubation was > 98% pure adriamycin. Confocal laser scanning microscopic observation showed that in MCF-7/DOX cells adriamycin was localized mostly in the Golgi apparatus rather than in the nucleus, the preferred site of accumulation for sensitive MCF-7 cells. These findings rule out GSH conjugation or any other significant biochemical transformation as the basis for resistance to adriamycin and as a ground for the anomalous localization of the drug in the cell. Adriamycin, daunomycin, and menogaril did not undergo meaningful conjugation to GSH in the presence of GST P1-1 at pH 7.2. Indeed, their synthetic C(7)-aglycon-GSH conjugates exerted a strong inhibitory effect on GST P1-1, with K(i) at 25 degrees in the 1-2 muM range, scarcely dependent on their stereochemistry at C(7).
1: Epidemiology 2000 Mar;11(2):141-7
Time to pregnancy among the wives of men occupationally exposed to lead.
Sallmen M, Lindbohm ML, Anttila A, Taskinen H, Hemminki K
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki.
We conducted a retrospective study on time to pregnancy among the wives of men biologically monitored for lead to assess whether paternal occupational exposure to inorganic lead is associated with decreased fertility. After three mailings, 554 (72.2%) wives of the monitored men participated. The final study population consisted of 502 couples who did not use contraception at the beginning of the pregnancy. We assessed lead exposure from blood lead measurements and from questionnaires completed by the men. We calculated the relative fecundability density ratios with discrete proportional hazards regression. The fecundability density ratios, adjusted for potential confounders, were 0.92 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.73-1.16], 0.89 (95% CI = 0.66-1.20), 0.58 (95% CI = 0.33-0.96), and 0.83 (95% CI = 0.50-1.32) for blood lead categories 0.5-0.9, 1.0-1.4, 1.5-1.8, and > or =1.9 micromol/L, respectively, as compared with <0.5 micromol/L. The findings provide limited support for the hypothesis that paternal exposure to lead is associated with decreased fertility.
PMID: 11021610, UI: 20471618
1: Toxicol Ind Health 1999 Jan-Mar;15(1-2):37-47
The estrogenic and antiandrogenic pesticide methoxychlor alters the reproductive tract and behavior without affecting pituitary size or LH and prolactin secretion in male rats.
Gray LE Jr, Ostby J, Cooper RL, Kelce WR
This study was designed to determine if long-term exposure to high doses of methoxychlor (M) would alter pituitary or testicular endocrine functions in either an estrogenic or antiandrogenic manner. Weanling male Long-Evans hooded rats were dosed daily with M (po) at 0, 200, 300, or 400 mg kg-1 day-1 for 10 months. Methoxychlor treatment delayed puberty by as much as 10 weeks and reduced fertility and copulatory plug formation in a dose-related manner at the initial mating. During mating, M-treated males exhibited shorter latencies to mount and ejaculate versus control males, but the number of intromissions prior to ejaculation was unaffected, indicating that M enhanced the arousal level in the males in an estrogen-dependent manner. Most treated males eventually mated but time-to-pregnancy was lengthened. Very low sperm counts were associated with infertility, while prolonged delays in puberty reduced fecundity. Methoxychlor treatment with 200 to 400 mg kg-1 day-1 failed to mimic the chronic effects of a sustained (8 months) low dose of estradiol-17 beta (3-mm silastic implants) on pituitary or testicular hormone levels. Estradiol administration increased pituitary weight 4-fold, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) were reduced by almost 50%, and serum prolactin was increased 40-fold, while M did not affect any of these measures. These data demonstrate that M affects the CNS, epididymal sperm numbers, and the accessory sex glands and delays mating without significantly affecting the secretion of LH, prolactin, or testosterone. These data indicate that M did not alter pituitary endocrine function in either an estrogenic or antiandrogenic manner. To our knowledge, these data provide the first in vivo example of such a pronounced degree of target tissue selectivity to an environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical.
PMID: 10188190, UI: 99204005
1: Adv Exp Med Biol 1999;467:177-82
L-5-hydroxytryptophan can prevent nociceptive disorders in man.
Nicolodi M, Sicuteri F
Interuniversity Centre of Neurochemistry, Florence, Italy.
Prevention of primary pain is a new topic, endowed with social and economic interest. We observed that L-5-HTP can induce a significant decrease of the cropping out of migraine, the commonest primary pain. This finding seems interesting, since it represents the first data in the field and was obtained in a prospective, long-term, placebo controlled study. The result obtained suggests that CNS abnormalities underlying the mechanism of migraine can be changed by L-5-HTP, if the amino acid is administered to subjects who are predisposed to headache.
Publication Types: Clinical trial
Randomized controlled trial
PMID: 10721054, UI: 20185832
1: Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2):466-70
Effectiveness of high-dose riboflavin in migraine prophylaxis. A randomized controlled trial.
Schoenen J, Jacquy J, Lenaerts M
Department of Neurology, University of Liege, CHR Citadelle, Belgium.
A deficit of mitochondrial energy metabolism may play a role in migraine pathogenesis. We found in a previous open study that high-dose riboflavin was effective in migraine prophylaxis. We now compared riboflavin (400 mg) and placebo in 55 patients with migraine in a randomized trial of 3 months duration. Using an intention-to-treat analysis, riboflavin was superior to placebo in reducing attack frequency (p = 0.005) and headache days (p = 0.012). Regarding the latter, the proportion of patients who improved by at least 50%, i.e. "responders," was 15% for placebo and 59% for riboflavin (p = 0.002) and the number-needed-to-treat for effectiveness was 2.3. Three minor adverse events occurred, two in the riboflavin group (diarrhea and polyuria) and one in the placebo group (abdominal cramps). None was serious. Because of its high efficacy, excellent tolerability, and low cost, riboflavin is an interesting option for migraine prophylaxis and a candidate for a comparative trial with an established prophylactic drug.
Publication Types: Clinical trial
Randomized controlled trial
Comment in: ACP J Club 1998 Sep-Oct;129(2):33
Comment in: Neurology 1999 Jan 15;52(2):431-2
PMID: 9484373, UI: 98145367
1: Carcinogenesis 2000 Nov;21(11):2091-2095
Influence of Helicobacter pylori on reactive oxygen-induced gastric epithelial cell injury.
Smoot DT, Elliott TB, Verspaget HW, Jones D, Allen CR, Vernon KG, Bremner T, Kidd LC, Kim KS, Groupman JD, Ashktorab H
Cancer Center and Departments of Medicine and Biology, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
[Record supplied by publisher]
Risk factors for gastric cancer are receiving renewed attention in light of the recent positive association of Helicobacter pylori infection with gastric cancer. The effect of H.pylori on the balance between oxidants and antioxidants in the stomach is not well known. In this study, we investigated if exposure of gastric cells to H.pylori increases oxidant-associated gastric epithelial cell injury. A human gastric epithelial cell line (AGS) was grown on 96-well clusters, then exposed overnight to either live H.pylori (four cagA(+) and four cagA(-)) or broth culture supernatant from an isogenic H.pylori cagA(+) strain with and without vacA activity. Incubation of AGS cells with cagA(+) and cagA(-) H.pylori strains before exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduced cell viability on average to 73.7% and 39.5% of controls, respectively. The percent viability of cells exposed to ROS after incubation with control broth, vacA(-) broth and vacA(+) broth was 97.7%, 70.5% and 63.5%, respectively. Experiments were then performed to evaluate the effects of H.pylori exposure on the activities of ROS-scavenging enzymes [catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD)] and formation of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) adducts in AGS cells. Overnight exposure to cagA(-) strains reduced catalase activity by 42%; in contrast, exposure to cagA(+) H.pylori strains increased catalase activity by 51%. Glutathione peroxidase activity increased with exposure to both cagA(-) and cagA(+) strains by 95% and 240%, respectively. Total SOD activity increased 156% after exposure to cagA(+) strains and was marginally increased (52%) with exposure to cagA(-) strains. CuZn-SOD protein levels, assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were not significantly altered by exposure to H.pylori strains; however, Mn-SOD concentrations were significantly increased (P: < 0.02) after exposure to both cagA(-) and cagA(+) H.pylori strains. Exposure of AGS cells to cagA(+) and cagA(-) H.pylori was associated with, on average, 44.5 and 99.0 8-OH-dG/10(6) dG, respectively. The increase in catalase, glutathione peroxidase and SOD activity is associated with fewer 8-OH-dG DNA adducts and reduced susceptibility of AGS cells to lethal injury from ROS after exposure to cagA(+) H.pylori strains when compared with exposure to cagA(-) H.pylori strains. Alteration in the activity of ROS-scavenging enzymes by the presence of H.pylori may in part be responsible for the increased risk of gastric cancer in persons infected with H.pylori.
1: Stroke 2000 Oct;31(10):2301-6
Intake of flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and risk of stroke in male smokers.
Hirvonen T, Virtamo J, Korhonen P, Albanes D, Pietinen P
Department of Nutrition, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland (T.H., J.V., P.K., P.P.), and Division of Clinical Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md (D.A.).
[Medline record in process]
Background and Purpose-Antioxidants may protect against atherosclerosis and thus prevent cerebrovascular disease. We studied the association between dietary antioxidants and subtypes of stroke.
METHODS:-The study cohort consisted of 26 593 male smokers, aged 50 to 69 years, without a history of stroke. They were participants of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study in Finland. The men completed a validated dietary questionnaire at baseline. Incident cases were identified through national registers.
RESULTS:-During a 6.1-year follow-up, 736 cerebral infarctions, 83 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 95 intracerebral hemorrhages occurred. Neither dietary flavonols and flavones nor vitamin E were associated with risk for stroke. The dietary intake of beta-carotene was inversely associated with the risk for cerebral infarction (relative risk [RR] of highest versus lowest quartile 0.74, 95% CI 0.60 to 0. 91), lutein plus zeaxanthin with risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.93), and lycopene with risks of cerebral infarction (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.92) and intracerebral hemorrhage (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.86). Vitamin C intake was inversely associated with the risk for intracerebral hemorrhage (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.74). After simultaneous modeling of the antioxidants, a significant association remained only between beta-carotene intake and risk for cerebral infarction (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.99).
CONCLUSIONS:-Dietary intake of beta-carotene was inversely associated with the risk for cerebral infarction. No association was detected between other dietary antioxidants and risk for stroke.
PMID: 11022054, UI: 20478102
1: N Engl J Med 2000 Jun 8;342(23):1686-92
Urothelial carcinoma associated with the use of a Chinese herb.
Nortier JL, Martinez MC, Schmeiser HH, Arlt VM, Bieler CA, Petein M, Depierreux MF, De Pauw L, Abramowicz D, Vereerstraeten P, Vanherweghem JL
BACKGROUND: Chinese-herb nephropathy is a progressive form of renal fibrosis that develops in some patients who take weight-reducing pills containing Chinese herbs. Because of a manufacturing error, one of the herbs in these pills (Stephania tetrandra) was inadvertently replaced by Aristolochia fangchi, which is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic.
METHODS: The diagnosis of a neoplastic lesion in the native urinary tract of a renal-transplant recipient who had Chinese-herb nephropathy prompted us to propose regular cystoscopic examinations and the prophylactic removal of the native kidneys and ureters in all our patients with end-stage Chinese-herb nephropathy who were being treated with either transplantation or dialysis. Surgical specimens were examined histologically and analyzed for the presence of DNA adducts formed by aristolochic acid. All prescriptions written for Chinese-herb weight-reducing compounds during the period of exposure (1990 to 1992) in these patients were obtained, and the cumulative doses were calculated.
RESULTS: Among 39 patients who agreed to undergo prophylactic surgery, there were 18 cases of urothelial carcinoma (prevalence, 46 percent; 95 percent confidence interval, 29 to 62 percent): 17 cases of carcinoma of the ureter, renal pelvis, or both and 1 papillary bladder tumor. Nineteen of the remaining patients had mild-to-moderate urothelial dysplasia, and two had normal urothelium. All tissue samples analyzed contained aristolochic acid-related DNA adducts. The cumulative dose of aristolochia was a significant risk factor for urothelial carcinoma, with total doses of more than 200 g associated with a higher risk of urothelial carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of urothelial carcinoma among patients with end-stage Chinese-herb nephropathy (caused by aristolochia species) is a high.
Comments: Comment in: N Engl J Med 2000 Jun 8;342(23):1742-3
PMID: 10841870, UI: 20285032
1: Clin Sci (Colch) 1997 Apr;92(4):361-5
Combination oral antioxidant supplementation reduces blood pressure.
Galley HF, Thornton J, Howdle PD, Walker BE, Webster NR
Clinical Oxidant Research Group, St James's University Hospital, Leeds, UK.
1. Hypertension affects 30% of adults and low intakes of antioxidants have been associated with increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. To investigate the effect of short-term high-dose antioxidant supplementation on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive outpatients, we undertook a randomized, double-blind, crossover design placebo-controlled study.
2. Forty subjects were recruited from medical outpatient clinics, of whom 38 completed the study. Twenty-one were attending for treatment of hypertension and 17 were normotensive, attending for minor gastrointestinal complaints. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 8 weeks placebo followed by 2 weeks washout then 8 weeks antioxidants or vice versa. The combination of antioxidants consisted of 200 mg of zinc sulphate, 500 mg of ascorbic acid, 600 mg of alpha-tocopherol (sodium succinate salt) and 30 mg of beta-carotene daily.
3. Systolic blood pressure fell at the end of the antioxidant phase compared with the placebo phase both in subjects receiving anti-hypertensive therapy (P < 0.01) and those who were normotensive (P = 0.067). Circulating levels of beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol increased in all subjects during supplementation (P < 0.01) and urine nitrite increased in hypertensive patients (P < 0.05).
4. Short-term oral high-dose combination antioxidant therapy reduces blood pressure, possibly via increased availability of nitric oxide. This study may have implications for the innovative use of antioxidants as an adjunct to anti-hypertensive therapy.
Publication Types: Clinical trial
Randomized controlled trial
PMID: 9176034, UI: 97319131
1: J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998;32 Suppl 3:S41-7
Endothelial dysfunction in hypertension: fact or fancy?
Taddei S, Virdis A, Ghiadoni L, Salvetti A
Cattedra di Medicina Interna, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa, Italy.
Endothelium can deeply influence vascular tone and structure. The main endothelium-derived factor is nitric oxide (NO), which not only is a potent vasodilator but also inhibits platelet aggregation, smooth muscle cell proliferation, monocyte adhesion, and adhesion molecule expression, thus protecting the vessel wall against the development of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. In human hypertension, endothelial dysfunction has been documented in peripheral and coronary macro- and microcirculation and in renal circulation. Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation associated with essential hypertension appears to be a primary phenomenon because it can be detected in the offspring of essential hypertensive patients, shows no clear correlation with blood pressure value, and is not normalized by the mere reduction of blood pressure. The phenomenon responsible for endothelial alteration in essential hypertensive patients appears to be the activation of an alternative pathway involving cyclo-oxygenase (COX), which reduces NO availability through production of oxidative stress. This alteration in the NO pathway could be the main mechanism through which a dysfunctional endothelium may promote atherosclerosis and thrombosis in essential hypertension. Therefore, an important aim of antihypertensive therapy would be not only to normalize blood pressure values but also to reverse endothelial dysfunction by restoring NO availability. Evidence indicates that different classes of antihypertensive compounds have different effects on this alteration. Dihydropiridine calcium antagonists appear to act specifically on the NO pathway by a mechanism that is probably related to antioxidant activity.
Publication Types: Review
PMID: 9883747, UI: 99098216
1: Circulation 1998 Jun 9;97(22):2222-9
Vitamin C improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation by restoring nitric oxide activity in essential hypertension.
Taddei S, Virdis A, Ghiadoni L, Magagna A, Salvetti A
I Clinica Medica, University of Pisa, Italy.
BACKGROUND: Essential hypertension is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Inactivation of endothelium-derived nitric oxide by oxygen free radicals participates in endothelial dysfunction in experimental hypertension. To test this hypothesis in humans, we evaluated the effect of antioxidant vitamin C on endothelium-dependent responses in essential hypertensive patients.
METHODS AND RESULTS: In 14 healthy subjects (47.1+/-4.8 years; blood pressure, 120.6+/-4.5/80.9+/-3.5 mm Hg) and 14 essential hypertensive patients (47.3+/-5.1 years; blood pressure, 153.9+/-7.1/102.3+/-4.1 mm Hg), we studied forearm blood flow (strain-gauge plethysmography) modifications induced by intrabrachial acetylcholine (0.15, 0.45, 1.5, 4.5, and 15 microg x 100 mL(-1) x min(-1)) or sodium nitroprusside (1, 2, and 4 microg/100 mL forearm tissue per minute), an endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilator, respectively, in basal conditions and during infusion of intrabrachial vitamin C (2.4 mg/100 mL forearm tissue per minute). In hypertensive patients but not in control subjects, vitamin C increased (P<0.01) the impaired vasodilation to acetylcholine, whereas the response to sodium nitroprusside was unaffected. Moreover, in another 14 hypertensive patients (47.1+/-5.2 years; blood pressure, 155.2+/-6.9/103.7+/-4.5 mm Hg), the facilitating effect of vitamin C on vasodilation to acetylcholine was reversed by N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (100 microg/100 mL forearm tissue per minute), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, suggesting that in essential hypertension superoxide anions impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation by nitric oxide breakdown. Finally, because in adjunctive 7 hypertensive patients (47.8+/-6.1 years; blood pressure, 155.3+/-6.8/103.5+/-4.3 mm Hg), indomethacin (50 microg/100 mL forearm tissue per minute), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, prevented the potentiating effect of vitamin C on vasodilation to acetylcholine, it is possible that in essential hypertension a main source of superoxide anions could be the cyclooxygenase pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: In essential hypertensive patients, impaired endothelial vasodilation can be improved by the antioxidant vitamin C, an effect that can be reversed by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine. These findings support the hypothesis that nitric oxide inactivation by oxygen free radicals contributes to endothelial dysfunction in essential hypertension.
Publication Types: Clinical trial
PMID: 9631871, UI: 98293632
1: Circulation 2000 Jun 27;101(25):2896-901
Physical activity prevents age-related impairment in nitric oxide availability in elderly athletes.
Taddei S, Galetta F, Virdis A, Ghiadoni L, Salvetti G, Franzoni F, Giusti C, Salvetti A
BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and endothelial dysfunction. Since exercise can improve endothelium-dependent vasodilation, in the present study we tested whether long-term physical activity could prevent aging-related endothelial dysfunction.
METHODS AND RESULTS: In 12 young and elderly (age 26.9+/-2.3 and 62.9+/-5.8 years, respectively) healthy sedentary subjects and 11 young and 14 elderly matched athletes (age 27.5+/-1.9 and 66.4+/-6.1 years, respectively), we studied (with strain-gauge plethysmography) forearm blood flow modifications induced by intrabrachial acetylcholine (0.15, 0.45, 1.5, 4.5, and 15 microg/100 mL per minute), an endothelium-dependent vasodilator, at baseline, during infusion of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) (100 microg/100 mL forearm tissue per minute), a nitric oxide-synthase inhibitor, vitamin C (8 mg/100 mL forearm tissue per minute), an antioxidant, and finally under simultaneous infusion of L-NMMA and vitamin C. The response to sodium nitroprusside (1, 2, and 4 microg/100 mL forearm tissue per minute) was also evaluated. In young athletes and sedentary subgroups, vasodilation to acetylcholine was inhibited by L-NMMA and was not changed by vitamin C. In elderly subjects, vasodilation to acetylcholine was blunted as compared with young subjects in both control subjects and athletes, whereas the response to sodium nitroprusside was similar. Moreover, in elderly athletes, vitamin C did not change the vasodilation to acetylcholine. In contrast, in elderly sedentary subjects, the response to acetylcholine was resistant to L-NMMA. In this subgroup, vitamin C increased the vasodilation to acetylcholine and restored the inhibiting effect of L-NMMA.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that regular physical activity can at least in part prevent the age-induced endothelial dysfunction, probably the restoration of nitric oxide availability consequent to prevention of production of oxidative stress.
Publication Types: Clinical trial
PMID: 10869260, UI: 20329936
1: Cell Mol Life Sci 2000 Jan 20;57(1):5-15
Matrix metalloproteinases in tumor invasion.
Johansson N, Ahonen M, Kahari VM
Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku, Finland.
Controlled degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for the growth,invasion, and metastasis of malignant tumors, and for tumor-induced angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent neutral endopeptidases collectively capable of degrading essentially all ECM components and they apparently play an important role in all these aspects of tumor development. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that MMPs also play a role in tumor cell survival. In this review, we discuss the current concept concerning the role of MMPs and their inhibitors in tumor invasion, as a basis for prognosis and targeted therapeutic intervention in cancer.
Publication Types: Review
PMID: 10949577, UI: 20406125
1: Clin Cancer Res 2000 Aug;6(8):3183-92
Superoxide dismutases in gastric and esophageal cancer and the prognostic impact in gastric cancer.
Janssen AM, Bosman CB, van Duijn W, Oostendorp-van de Ruit MM, Kubben FJ, Griffioen G, Lamers CB, van Krieken JH, van de Velde CJ, Verspaget HW
Department of Gastroenterology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
[Medline record in process]
The oxidant-antioxidant balance is thought to be important in the initiation, promotion, and therapy resistance of cancer. In the present study, we assessed the expression of the antioxidants manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase in gastric and esophageal carcinomas and their relation with clinical outcome. Adenocarcinomas of the stomach (n = 81) as well as squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus (n = 10) showed an enhanced immunohistochemical expression of Mn-SOD, which was accompanied by a significantly higher tissue level (P < or = 0.007) compared with their corresponding normal mucosa. In contrast, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase was found to be marginally lower in these malignant tissues in comparison with the normal tissues. The superoxide dismutase levels were not found to be associated with major clinicopathological features of the gastric cancer patients. Univariate analysis revealed, however, that a high Mn-SOD level in gastric carcinomas, a low level in the normal gastric mucosa, and a high ratio of these two levels in gastric cancer patients are indicative of a poor overall survival. Multivariate analysis, including all clinicopathological parameters, revealed that the Mn-SOD ratio in particular is an independent prognostic parameter in gastric cancer patients.
PMID: 10955802, UI: 20410769
1: Am J Ind Med 2000 Sep;38(3):316-23
Lead as a carcinogen: experimental evidence and mechanisms of action.
Silbergeld EK, Waalkes M, Rice JM
University of Maryland, Program in Human Health and the Environment, 10 South Pine Street, MSTF 9-36, Baltimore, Maryland.
[Medline record in process]
Recent epidemiological and experimental work confirms that inorganic lead compounds are associated with increased risks of tumorigenesis. In animals, these risks can be induced at doses that are not associated with organ toxicity and in mice that do not produce alpha-2 urinary globulin in the kidney. Thus the mechanisms of lead carcinogenicity are unlikely to be fully explained as toxicity-related sequelae of high dose exposure or as a rat-specific response involving overexpression of a renal protein. Plausible mechanisms of lead carcinogenicity include direct DNA damage, clastogenicity, or inhibition of DNA synthesis or repair. Lead may also generate reactive oxygen species and cause oxidative damage to DNA. Recent data indicate that lead can substitute for zinc in several proteins that function as transcriptional regulators, including protamines. Lead further reduces the binding of these proteins to recognition elements in genomic DNA, which suggests an epigenetic involvement of lead in altered gene expression. These events may be of particular relevance in transplacental exposures and later cancer. Am. J. Ind. Med. 38:316-323, 2000. Published 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
PMID: 10940970, UI: 20400834